SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
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Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant as of December 31, 2020, was approximately $
On August 16, 2021, there were
Documents Incorporated by Reference
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2021
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of that term in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “Act”) (Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Additional written or oral forward-looking statements may be made by the Company from time to time in filings with the Securities Exchange Commission, press releases, or otherwise. Statements contained in this Form 10-K that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Act. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, projections of revenue, income or loss and capital expenditures, statements regarding future operations, anticipated financing needs, compliance with financial covenants in loan agreements, plans for acquisitions or sales of assets or businesses, plans relating to products or services of the Company, assessments of materiality, predictions of future events, the effects of pending and possible litigation and assumptions relating to the foregoing. In addition, when used in this Form 10-K, the words "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "may," "will," "should," “could,” “would,” “shall,” "forecasts," "predicts," "potential," "continue," and variations thereof and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified based on current expectations. Consequently, future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by, or underlying the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K, or in other Company filings, press releases, or otherwise. In addition to the factors discussed in this Form 10-K, other factors that could contribute to or cause such differences include, but are not limited to, developments in any one or more of the following areas: future fluctuations in economic conditions, the receptivity of consumers to new consumer electronics technologies, the rate and consumer acceptance of new product introductions, competition, pricing, the number and nature of customers and their product orders, production by third party vendors, foreign manufacturing, sourcing, and sales (including foreign government regulation, trade and importation concerns), the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy and the Company’s operations, borrowing costs, changes in tax rates, volatility in the price and trading volume of our common stock, pending or threatened litigation and investigations, and other risk factors described in the Risk Factors and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations sections in this Form 10-K.
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements contained herein, which speak only as of the date hereof. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly release the result of any revisions to these forward-looking statements that may be made to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect new information.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
As used herein unless the context otherwise requires, the term “Company” means Koss Corporation and its subsidiaries, Koss Corp B.V. and Koss U.K. Limited. Koss Corporation was incorporated in Delaware in 1971. It formed Koss Corp B.V. and Koss U.K. Limited to comply with certain European Union ("EU") requirements. Koss U.K. Limited is maintained to comply with certain U.K. requirements.
The Company operates in the audio/video industry segment of the home entertainment and communication industry through its design, manufacture and sale of stereo headphones and related accessory products. The Company reports its results as a single reporting segment, as the Company’s only business line is the design, manufacture and sale of stereo headphones and related accessories.
The Company’s products are sold through U.S. distributors, international distributors, audio specialty stores, the internet, national retailers, grocery stores, electronics retailers, military exchanges and prisons under the “Koss” name as well as private label. The Company also sells products to distributors for resale to school systems, and directly to other manufacturers for inclusion with their own products. As of June 30, 2021, the Company had approximately 105 domestic dealers and its products were carried in approximately 7,400 domestic retail outlets and numerous retailers worldwide. International markets are served by domestic sales representatives and sales personnel in the Netherlands and Russia. The Company utilizes independent distributors in several foreign countries.
Approximately 70% of the Company’s fiscal year 2021 sales were from stereo headphones used for listening to music. The remaining approximately 30% of the Company's sales were from headphones used in communications, education settings, and in conjunction with metal detectors, as well as to original equipment manufacturers ("OEM"). The products are not significantly differentiated by their retail sales channel or application with the exception of products sold to school systems, prisons, and OEM customers. There are no other product line differentiations other than the quality of the sound produced by the stereo headphone itself, which is highly subjective.
The Company sources complete stereo headphones manufactured to its specifications from various manufacturers in Asia as well as raw materials used to produce stereo headphones at its plant in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Management believes that it has sources of complete stereo headphones and raw materials that are adequate for its needs.
There are no employment or compensation commitments between the Company and its dealers. The Company has contracted several independent manufacturers’ representatives as part of its distribution efforts. The Company typically signs one year contracts with these manufacturers’ representatives. The arrangements with foreign distributors do not contemplate that the Company pays any compensation other than any profit the distributors make upon their sale of the Company’s products.
John C. Koss is recognized for creating the stereo headphone industry with the first SP/3 stereo headphone in 1958. The Company regularly applies for registration of its trademarks in many countries around the world, and over the years the Company has had numerous trademarks registered and patents issued in North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Africa, and Australia. As of June 30, 2021, the Company had 433 trademarks registered in 90 countries around the world and 150 patents in 25 countries. The Company has trademarks to protect the brand name, Koss, and its logo on its products. The Company also holds many design patents that protect the unique visual appearance of some of its products. These trademarks and patents are important to differentiate the Company from its competitors. Certain of the Company’s trademarks are of material value and importance to the conduct of its business. The Company considers protection of its proprietary developments important; however, the Company’s business is not, in the opinion of management, materially dependent upon any single trademark or patent.
Although retail sales of consumer electronics have historically been higher during the holiday season, sales of stereo headphones have recently increased throughout the year. Management believes that the Company's business and industry segment are no longer seasonal as evidenced by the fact that the Company’s net sales for the last couple of years, including the year ended June 30, 2021, were almost equally split between the first and second halves of the year. Management believes that the reason for this level performance of sales to retailers and distributors is related to the fact that consumers are increasingly purchasing stereo headphones throughout the year as replacements for older or lower quality headphones to improve the quality of their listening experience as it relates to portable electronic products. Therefore, upgrades and replacements appear to have as much interest over the course of the year as gifts of stereo headphones during the holiday season.
WORKING CAPITAL AND BACKLOG
The Company’s working capital needs do not differ substantially from those of its competitors in the industry and generally reflect the need to carry significant amounts of inventory to meet delivery requirements of its customers. From time to time, although rarely, the Company may extend payment terms to its customers for a special promotion. For instance, the Company has in the past offered a 90-120 day payment period for certain customers, such as computer retailers and office supply stores. Based on historical trends, management does not expect these practices to have a material effect on net sales or net income. The Company’s backlog of orders as of June 30, 2021, is not significant in relation to net sales during fiscal year 2021 or projected fiscal year 2022 net sales.
The Company markets a line of products used by consumers to listen to music, to work and study from home, and to listen to other audio related media. The Company distributes these products through distributors and retail channels in the U.S. and independent distributors throughout the rest of the world. Additionally, the Company fills direct-to-consumer orders on its website. The Company markets its products through approximately 7,400 domestic retail outlets and numerous retailers worldwide. The Company also markets products directly to several original equipment manufacturers for use in their products. Sales to this customer base have been growing in recent years. In the year ended June 30, 2021, the Company’s largest customer was Ingram Micro. In the year ended June 30, 2020, the largest customer was Walmart. The Company’s sales to Ingram Micro, were approximately 18% and 10% of net sales in fiscal year 2021 and 2020, respectively. Walmart sales were approximately 6% and 18% of net sales in fiscal year 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company is dependent upon its ability to retain a base of retailers and distributors to sell the Company’s line of products. Loss of retailers and distributors means loss of product placement. The Company has broad distribution across many channels including specialty stores, mass merchants, and electronics stores. Management believes that any loss of revenues would be partially offset by a corresponding decrease, on a percentage basis, in expenses, thereby partially reducing the impact on the Company’s income from operations. The Company’s five largest customers (including Ingram Micro in both years) accounted for approximately 48% of net sales in both fiscal years 2021 and 2020.
The Company focuses on the stereo headphone industry. In the stereo headphone market, the Company competes directly primarily with approximately six major competitors, several of which are large and diversified and have greater total assets and resources than the Company. The extent to which retailers and consumers view the Company as an innovative vendor of high quality stereo headphone products, and a provider of excellent after-sales customer service, is the extent to which the Company maintains a competitive advantage. The Company relies upon its unique sound, quality workmanship, brand identification, engineering skills, and customer service to maintain its competitive position.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The amount expensed on engineering and research activities relating to the development of new products or the improvement of existing products was $410,602 during fiscal year 2021. These activities were conducted by both Company personnel and outside consultants. There was $397,360 in expenses for research and development activities during fiscal year 2020. The Company expects to incur on-going research and development costs related to its Bluetooth® and traditional wired headphones as it is planning to introduce new product offerings on a regular basis.
The Company believes that it has materially complied with all currently existing federal, state and local statutes and regulations regarding environmental standards and occupational safety and health matters to which it is subject. During fiscal years 2021 and 2020, the amounts incurred in complying with federal, state and local statutes and regulations pertaining to environmental standards and occupational safety and health laws and regulations did not materially affect the Company’s operating results or financial condition.
As of June 30, 2021, the Company employed 35 non-union employees, 3 of which were part-time employees. The Company also engaged temporary personnel at times during the year ended June 30, 2021.
The Company’s competitive position and risks relating to its business in foreign markets are comparable to those in the domestic market. In addition, the governments of foreign nations may elect to erect trade barriers on imports. The creation of additional barriers would reduce the Company’s net sales and net income. In addition, any fluctuations in currency exchange rates could affect the pricing of the Company’s products and divert customers who might choose to purchase lower-priced, less profitable products, and could affect overall demand for the Company’s products. For further information, see Part II, Item 7.
The Company has sales personnel in the Netherlands and Russia to service the international export marketplace. Loss of these personnel would result in a transfer of sales and marketing responsibility. The Company sells its products to independent distributors in countries and regions outside the United States including Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Australia, South America, Latin America, the Caribbean, Canada and Mexico. During the last two fiscal years, net sales of all Koss products were distributed as follows:
All other countries
The Company has a manufacturing facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and uses contract manufacturing facilities in the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. A contract employee is based in China to manage supplier quality and to assist with development of new products. Since these independent suppliers are not located in the United States, the Company is at risk of business interruptions due to natural disasters, war, disease and government intervention through tariffs or trade restrictions that are of less concern domestically. The Company maintains finished goods inventory in its U.S. facility to mitigate this risk. The Company’s goal is to stock finished goods inventory at an average of approximately 90 days demand per item. Recovery of a single facility through replacement of a supplier in the event of a disaster or suspension of supply could take an estimated six to twelve months. The Company believes that it could restore production of its top 10 selling models (which represent approximately 51% of the Company’s 2021 net sales) within 12-18 months. Recent changes to compliance testing have impacted the time it takes to bring a product to market and would also impact the time necessary to retool a product and re-enter the marketplace. The Company is also at risk if trade restrictions are introduced on its products based upon country of origin. In addition, the Company may not be able to pass along most increases in tariffs and freight charges to the Company’s customers, which would directly affect profits.
The Company depends on information technology as an enabler to improve the effectiveness of its operations and to interface with its customers, as well as to maintain financial accuracy and efficiency. Information technology system failures, including suppliers’ or vendors’ system failures, could disrupt the Company’s operations by causing transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, delays or cancellation of customer orders, the loss of customers, impediments to the manufacture or shipment of products, other business disruptions, or the loss of or damage to intellectual property through security breach. The Company’s information systems, or those of its third-party service providers, could also be penetrated by outside parties intent on extracting information, corrupting information or disrupting business processes. Such unauthorized access could disrupt the Company’s business, increase costs and/or could result in the loss of assets. Cybersecurity attacks are becoming more sophisticated and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in critical systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information, corruption or destruction of data and other manipulation or improper use of systems or networks. These events could negatively impact the Company’s customers and/or reputation and lead to financial losses from remediation actions, loss of business, production downtimes, operational delays or potential liability, penalties, fines or other increases in expense, all of which may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business. In addition, as security threats and cybersecurity and data privacy and protection laws and regulations continue to evolve and increase in terms of sophistication, we may invest additional resources in the security of our systems. Any such increased level of investment could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. The Company has programs in place to address and mitigate the cybersecurity risks. These programs include regular monitoring of outside threats, continuous updating of software to mitigate risk, education of employees to the risks of external threats, and simplification of infrastructure to minimize servers. The Company continues to minimize its risk by reducing the number of physical servers at the HQ location and further reducing the exposure of public systems. Planned e-commerce improvements will also reduce exposure. Operating systems are being updated to eliminate risks. More business critical systems are being moved to the cloud including email and its ERP system.
The Company’s internet website is https://www.koss.com. The Company makes available free of charge through its internet website the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with (or furnished to) the Securities and Exchange Commission. These reports and other information regarding the Company are also available on the SEC’s internet website at https://www.sec.gov. The information on the Company's website is not part of this or any other report the Company files with or furnishes to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
We are subject to various risks that may materially harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. This discussion highlights some of the risks that may affect future operating results. These are the risks and uncertainties we believe are most important for you to consider. We cannot be certain that we will successfully address these risks. If we are unable to address these risks, our business may not grow, our stock price may suffer, and we may be unable to stay in business. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, which we currently deem immaterial or which are similar to those faced by other companies in our industry or business in general, may also impair our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. The risks discussed below include forward-looking statements, and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements.
Risks Related to Our Operations and Financial Results
Reduction in present levels of cash flow could adversely affect the Company’s business.
The Company’s primary source of liquidity historically has been operating cash flows. The Company’s future cash flows from operations (on both a short-term and long-term basis) are dependent upon the following factors, among others:
the Company’s ability to attract new customers that will sell the Company’s products and pay for them;
the Company’s ability to retain its existing customers at the level of sales previously produced;
the volume of sales for these customers;
maintaining business from one or more primary customers;
Similarly, the Company’s future cash flows from operations are subject to the following risks and, among others:
changes in types of products that customers purchase in their sales mix;
poor or deteriorating economic conditions which would directly impact the ability of the Company’s customers to remain in business and pay for their products on a timely basis;
timely, efficient and cost effective movement of products from suppliers and to export customers:
management’s ability to minimize the impact of requests for increases in material or labor cost; and
the ability to collect in full and in a timely manner amounts due to the Company.
In addition, the Company’s cash flow is also dependent, to some extent, upon the ability to maintain operating margins.
We are dependent on the proper functioning of our critical facilities, our contract manufacturers in China, our supply chain and distribution networks and the financial stability of our customers, all of which have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in a manner that may have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our ability to produce products may be materially adversely impacted by COVID-19.
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact worldwide economic activity, and has had a corresponding effect on our sales activity. As the virus and variants thereof continue to spread globally, the impact of this pandemic has been and will likely continue to be extensive in many aspects of society, and has resulted in and will likely continue to result in significant disruptions to the global economy, as well as businesses and capital markets around the world. With the ongoing effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and other countries, it is unclear how economic activity and workflows will continue to be impacted and for how long. Many employers require their employees to work from home or not come into their offices or facilities. Our actions continue to evolve in response to new government measures and scientific knowledge regarding COVID-19. To date, these protocols have not resulted in a decrease in the production capabilities of our facility. However, if the manufacturing capabilities of this facility are adversely impacted as a result of COVID-19, whether by a decrease in productivity caused by precautionary measures or by one or more employees becoming ill, it may not be possible for us to timely produce relevant products at required levels or at all. A reduction or interruption in any of our manufacturing processes could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We also might be unable to obtain certain supplies, product components, or equipment from our suppliers and vendors due to constraints created by COVID-19. For instance, we have observed delays in certain suppliers’ deliveries of materials necessary for our contract manufacturers to manufacture our products. Additionally, travel restrictions and stay-at-home orders or similar mandates of foreign and domestic governments have prevented US based employees from visiting suppliers’ facilities as part of our quality control processes. These impacts may delay our launch of new products, adversely affect our ability to deliver customers’ orders timely or in the requested quantities and inhibit our ability to ensure the quality of supplies used in our products.
Our sales may be materially adversely impacted by COVID-19.
Our sales efforts include in-person meetings with customers and potential customers to discuss our products. Additionally, much of our customers’ sales are conducted in-person by consumers purchasing our products in brick-and-mortar stores. The method and timing of these meetings and the ability of our customers to make in-person sales have been altered due to stay-at-home orders and travel restrictions relating to COVID-19. This limitation on the ability of our sales personnel and our customers to maintain their customary interaction with customers and consumers may negatively affect demand for our products and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Failure to attract and retain customers to sell the Company’s products could adversely affect sales volume and future profitability.
The Company markets a line of products used by consumers to listen to music. The Company distributes these products through retail channels in the U.S. and independent distributors throughout the rest of the world. The Company is dependent upon its ability to attract and retain a base of customers to sell the Company’s line of products. The Company has broad distribution across many channels including specialty stores, mass merchants, electronics stores and computer retailers. The Company may not be able to maintain customers or model selections and therefore may experience a reduction in its sales revenue until a model is restored to the mix or a lost customer is replaced by a new customer. The loss of business of one or more principal customers or a change in the sales volume from a particular customer could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s sales volume and profitability.
A shift in customer specifications to lower priced items can reduce profit margins, negatively impacting profitability.
The Company sells lines of products with a suggested retail prices ranging from less than $10 up to $1,000. The gross margin for each of these models varies in terms of percentages. The Company finds the low-priced portion of the market most competitive and therefore most subject to pressure on gross margin percentages, which tends to lower profit contributions. Therefore, a shift in retail customer specifications and preferences toward lower priced items could lead to lower gross margins and lower profit contributions per unit of sale. Due to the range of products that the Company sells, the product sales mix can produce a variation in profit margins. Some distributors sell a limited range of products that yield lower profit margins than others. Most notably, the budget-priced stereo headphone segment of the market (below $10 retail), which is distributed through mass market retailers, computer stores, and office supply stores tends to yield the lowest gross margins. An increase in business with these types of accounts, if coupled with a simultaneous reduction in sales to customers with higher gross margins, would reduce profit margins and profitability.
If we are unable to continue to develop innovative and popular products, our brand image may be harmed and demand for our products may decrease.
Consumer electronics are subject to constantly and rapidly changing consumer preferences based on industry trends and performance features, including technological advancement. Our success depends largely on our ability to lead, anticipate, gauge and respond to these changing consumer preferences and trends in a timely manner, while preserving and strengthening the perception and authenticity of our brand. We must continue to develop high performance products that provide better design and performance attributes than the products of our competitors at similar price points. Market acceptance of new designs and products is subject to uncertainty and we cannot assure you that our efforts will be successful. The inability of new product designs or new product lines to gain market acceptance, or our current products losing traction in the market, could adversely affect our brand image, our business and financial condition. Achieving market acceptance for new products may also require substantial marketing efforts and expenditures to increase consumer demand, which could constrain our management, financial and operational resources. If new products we introduce do not experience broad market acceptance or demand for our existing products wanes, our net sales and market share could decline.
We may not be able to compete effectively, which could cause our net sales and market share to decline.
The consumer electronics industry is highly competitive, and characterized by frequent introduction of new competitors, as well as increased competition from established companies expanding their product portfolio, aggressive price cutting and resulting downward pressure on gross margins and rapid consolidation of the market resulting in larger competitors. We face competition from consumer electronics brands that have historically dominated the stereo headphone market, in addition to sport brand and lifestyle companies that also produce headphone products. These companies include, among others, Apple, Sony, Bose, LG and Samsung. These competitors may have significant competitive advantages, including greater financial, distribution, marketing and other resources, longer operating histories, better brand recognition among certain groups of consumers, and greater economies of scale. In addition, these competitors have long-term relationships with many of our larger retailers that are potentially more important to those retailers. As a result, these competitors may be better equipped to influence consumer preferences or otherwise increase their market share by:
quickly adapting to changes in consumer preferences;
readily taking advantage of acquisition and other opportunities;
discounting excess inventory;
devoting greater resources to the marketing and sale of their products, including significant advertising, media placement and product endorsement;
adopting aggressive pricing policies; and
engaging in lengthy and costly intellectual property and other legal disputes.
Additionally, the industry in which we compete generally has low barriers to entry that allow the introduction of new products or new competitors at a fast pace. Some retailers have begun to introduce their own private label headphones, which could reduce the volume of product they buy from us, as well as decrease the shelf space they allocate to our products. If we are unable to protect our brand image and authenticity, while carefully balancing our growth, we may be unable to effectively compete with these new market entrants or new products. The inability to compete effectively against new and existing competitors could have an adverse effect on our net sales and results of operations, preventing us from achieving future growth.
If we are unable to obtain intellectual property rights and/or enforce those rights against third parties who are violating those rights, including by obtaining a favorable outcome in litigation in which we are currently engaged, our business could suffer.
We rely on various intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, trade secrets and trade dress to protect our brand name, reputation, product appearance and technology. If we fail to obtain, maintain, or in some cases enforce our intellectual property rights, our competitors may be able to copy our designs, or use our brand name, trademarks or technology. As a result, if we are unable to successfully protect our intellectual property rights, or resolve any conflicts effectively, our results of operations may be harmed. In order to enforce our intellectual property rights, we recently filed complaints against certain parties alleging infringement on patents relating to our wireless audio technology. All litigation is uncertain, and there can be no assurance that any of this litigation will be decided in our favor. Regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations and distracting to management. If resolved against us, such legal proceedings could result in excessive verdicts, injunctive relief or other equitable relief that may affect how we operate our business. Similarly, if we settle such legal proceedings, it may negatively affect how we operate our business.
We may be adversely affected by the financial condition of our retailers and distributors.
Some of our retailers and distributors are experiencing financial difficulties as a result of current adverse economic conditions. A retailer or distributor experiencing such difficulties generally will not purchase and sell as many of our products as it would under normal circumstances and may cancel orders. In addition, a retailer or distributor experiencing financial difficulties generally increases our exposure to uncollectible receivables. We extend credit to our retailers and distributors based on our assessment of their financial condition, generally without requiring collateral, and sometimes are not able to obtain information regarding their current financial status. Failure of these retailers or distributors to remain current on their obligations to us could result in losses that exceed the reserves we set aside in anticipation of this risk. We are also exposed to the risk of our customers declaring bankruptcy, exposing us to claims of preferential payment claims. Financial difficulties on the part of our retailers or distributors could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
One of our customer’s accounts for a significant amount of our net sales, and the loss of, or reduced purchases from, this or other customers could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
Our largest fiscal year 2021 customer, Ingram Micro, accounted for more than 18% and 10% of our net sales in fiscal years 2021 and 2020, respectively. We do not have long-term contracts with any of our customers and all of our customers generally purchase from us on a purchase order basis. As a result, this customer generally may, with no notice or penalty, cease ordering and selling our products, or materially reduce its orders. If certain customers, individually or in the aggregate, choose to no longer sell our products, to slow their rate of purchase of our products or to decrease the number of products they purchase, our results of operations would be adversely affected.
Company profits can suffer from interruption in its supply chain.
The Company uses contract manufacturing facilities in the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan and South Korea. The Company is at risk of business interruptions due to natural disaster, war, disease and government intervention through tariffs or trade restrictions, which lately have become of increased concern in these areas. Therefore, any interruptions in the supply chain for any of these reasons could directly impact the Company’s profits in a material, negative way. Recovery of a single facility through replacement of a supplier in the event of a disaster or suspension of supply could take an estimated six to twelve months. The Company is also at risk if trade restrictions are imposed on the Company’s products based upon country of origin. In addition, the Company may not be able to pass along most increases in tariffs and freight charges to the Company’s customers, which would directly affect profits.
Company sales and profits can suffer from disruptions and price volatility in shipping its products from China to the US and from its warehouse in Milwaukee to its customers.
We have experienced and expect to continue to experience disruptions in shipping products and volatility in cost of shipping products. These disruptions include inability to obtain containers in a timely manner, difficulty in getting confirmation from forwarders, and delayed placement on cargo ships. There have also been substantial increases in transit times resulting from congested ports on the west coast of the U.S. as well as in the Chicago rail yards. The Company uses air freight as necessary to meet customer demands. The costs to ship product have increased considerably in the last few months and we expect this to continue. The Company is at risk of lower sales due to delays in receiving and shipping products. The price volatility will directly affect profits.
Our products may experience quality problems from time to time that can result in decreased sales and operating margin and harm to our reputation.
From time to time, our products may contain design and manufacturing defects. There can be no assurance we will be able to detect and fix all defects in the hardware we sell. Failure to do so could result in lost revenue, significant warranty and other expenses, and harm to our reputation.
An information systems interruption or breach in security could adversely affect us.
Privacy, security, and compliance concerns have continued to increase as technology has evolved. We rely on accounting, financial and operational management information systems to conduct our operations. Any disruption in these systems could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business. Furthermore, as part of our normal business activities, we collect and store common confidential information about customers, employees, vendors, and suppliers. This information is entitled to protection under a number of regulatory regimes. Any failure to maintain the security of the data, including the penetration of our network security and the misappropriation of confidential and personal information, could result in business disruption, damage to our reputation, financial obligations to third parties, fines, penalties, regulatory proceedings and private litigation with potentially large costs, and also result in deterioration in customers confidence in us and other competitive disadvantages, and thus could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could adversely affect our effective income tax rate and profitability.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States. Our effective income tax rate could be adversely affected in the future by a number of factors, including: changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and changes in tax laws. We regularly assess all of these matters to determine the adequacy of our tax provision.
Risks Related to our International Operations
Economic regulation, trade restrictions, and increasing manufacturing costs in China could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
The Company uses contract manufacturing facilities in the People’s Republic of China. For many years, the Chinese economy has experienced periods of rapid growth. An increase in the cost of labor or taxes on wages in China may lead to an increase in the cost of goods manufactured in China. Significant increases in wages or wage taxes paid by contract manufacturing facilities may increase the cost of goods manufactured in China which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s profit margins and profitability. Additionally, government trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs, export restrictions, sanctions or other retaliatory measures could limit our ability to source materials and products from China at acceptable prices or at all. We do not currently have arrangements with contract manufacturers in other countries that may be acceptable substitutes. We cannot predict what actions may ultimately be taken with respect to tariffs, export controls, countermeasures, or other trade measures between the U.S. and China or other countries and what products may be subject to such actions. To the extent such actions inhibit our transactions with contract manufacturing facilities and suppliers in China, our business may be materially adversely affected.
We may be subject to risks related to doing business in, and having counterparties based in, foreign countries.
We engage in operations, and enter into agreements with counterparties, located outside the U.S., which exposes us to political, governmental and economic instability and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Any disruption caused by these factors could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and prospects. Risks associated with potential operations, commitments and investments outside of the U.S. include but are not limited to risks of:
global and local economic, social and political conditions and uncertainty;
currency exchange restrictions and currency fluctuations;
war or terrorist attack;
local outbreak of disease, such as COVID-19;
renegotiation or nullification of existing contracts or international trade arrangements;
labor market conditions and workers’ rights affecting our manufacturing operations or those of our customers;
macro-economic conditions impacting key markets and sources of supply;
changing laws and policies affecting trade, taxation, financial regulation, immigration, and investment;
compliance with laws and regulations that differ among jurisdictions, including those covering taxes, intellectual property ownership and infringement, imports and exports, anti-corruption and anti-bribery, antitrust and competition, data privacy, and environment, health, and safety; and
general hazards associated with the assertion of sovereignty over areas in which operations are conducted, transactions occur, or counterparties are located.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could affect the Company’s financial results and operations, including with respect to pricing of products and overall demand for the Company’s products.
The Company receives a material portion of its sales and profits from business in Europe. To the extent that the value of the U.S. dollar increases relative to currencies in those jurisdictions, it increases the cost of the Company’s products in those jurisdictions, which could create negative pressure on the foreign demand for the Company’s products. The Company is paid by its international customers in U.S. dollars. To the extent that increased prices arising from currency fluctuations decrease the overall demand for the Company’s products or motivate customers to purchase lower-priced, lower profit products, the Company’s sales, profits and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to our Stock
Our stock price is subject to volatility.
Our stock is subject to substantial price volatility. Additionally, the Company, the technology industry, and the stock market as a whole have experienced extreme stock price and volume fluctuations that have affected stock prices in ways that may have been unrelated to companies' operating performance. Factors such as the depth and liquidity of the market for our common stock, investor perceptions of us and our business, actions by institutional shareholders, strategic actions by us, litigation, changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations and principles, additions or departures of key personnel and our results of operations, financial performance and future prospects may cause the market price and demand for our common stock to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from realizing the liquidity of their shares.
Our stock price and trading volume has recently been extremely volatile and may be volatile in the future for reasons unrelated to our operating performance or prospects and, as a result, investors in our common stock could incur substantial losses.
Our stock price has recently been extremely volatile and may be volatile in the future. By way of example, on January 22, 2021, the price of our common stock closed at $3.34 per share, and on January 29, 2021, our stock price closed at $64.00 per share with no discernible material announcements or developments relating to our operations. On January 28, 2021, the intra-day sales price of our common stock fluctuated between a reported low sale price of $25.00 and a reported high sales price of $127.45. Additionally, the trading volume in shares of our common stock during the three months ended June 30, 2021 ranged from a low of 193,400 shares on May 12, 2021 to a high of 19.4 million on June 2, 2021. Our market capitalization, as implied by various trading prices, has recently reflected valuations that diverge significantly from those seen prior to recent volatility and that are significantly higher than our market capitalization prior to the recent increase, and to the extent these valuations reflect trading dynamics unrelated to our financial performance or prospects, purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses if there are declines in market prices driven by a return to earlier valuations. Additionally, the stock market in general has experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may experience losses on their investment in our common stock.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the market, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. There can be no guarantee that our stock price will remain at current prices or that future sales of our common stock will not be at prices lower than those sold to investors.
A “short squeeze” due to a sudden increase in demand for shares of our common stock that largely exceeds supply has led to, and may continue to lead to, extreme price volatility in shares of our common stock.
Recently, securities of certain companies have experienced significant and extreme volatility in stock price due to a sudden increase in demand for stock resulting in aggregate short positions in the stock exceeding the number of shares available for purchase, forcing investors with short exposure to pay a premium to repurchase shares for delivery to share lenders. This is known as a “short squeeze.” These short squeezes have led to the price per share of those companies to trade at a significantly inflated rate that is disconnected from the underlying value of the company. A large proportion of our common stock has been and may continue to be traded by short sellers which may increase the likelihood that our common stock will be the target of a short squeeze. A short squeeze has led and could continue to lead to volatile price movements in shares of our common stock that are unrelated or disproportionate to our operating performance or prospects and, once investors purchase the shares of our common stock necessary to cover their short positions, the price of our common stock may rapidly decline. Stockholders that purchase shares of our common stock during a short squeeze may lose a significant portion of their investment.
The Koss family, including certain members of our management, own a significant percentage of our stock, and as a result, the trading price for our shares may be depressed and they can take actions that may be adverse to the interests of our stockholders.
Michael Koss, our President and Chief Executive Officer, beneficially owned 4,175,801 shares of our common stock as of August 1, 2021, representing 46.6% of shares outstanding on such date, including shares held by a family corporation and trusts over which Mr. Koss shares voting and dispositive power with John C. Koss Jr., our Vice President of Sales. This significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price for our common stock because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies with a controlling stockholder group. The group can significantly influence all matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election and removal of directors and any proposed merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, due to his significant ownership stake and his service as our Principal Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board and Directors, Michael Koss controls the management of our business and affairs. This concentration of ownership could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control, or impeding a merger or consolidation, takeover or other business combination that could be favorable to our other stockholders.
Future sales of a substantial amount of our common stock in the public markets by our insiders, or the perception that these sales may occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Our employees, directors and officers, and their affiliates, hold substantial amounts of shares of our common stock and have vested options for purchase of our common stock. Sales of a substantial number of such shares by these stockholders, or the perception that such sales will occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Other than restrictions on trading that arise under securities laws (or pursuant to our securities trading policy that is intended to facilitate compliance with securities laws), including the prohibition on trading in securities by or on behalf of a person who is aware of nonpublic material information, we have no restrictions on the right of our employees, directors and officers, and their affiliates, to sell their unrestricted shares of common stock.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The Company leases its 126,000 square foot facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from Koss Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by the Company’s former chairman. On January 5, 2017, the lease was renewed extending the expiration to June 30, 2023. The lease extension maintained the rent at a fixed rate of $380,000 per year and it is being accounted for as an operating lease. The Company is responsible for all property maintenance, insurance, taxes, and other normal expenses related to ownership. The Company utilizes its Milwaukee facility for administrative, corporate and production functions. All facilities are in good repair and, in the opinion of management, are suitable and adequate for the Company’s business purposes.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
As part of its intellectual property enforcement program, on or about July 22, 2020 the Company brought patent infringement suits against each of Apple Inc., Bose Corporation, PEAG, LLC d/b/a JLab Audio, Plantronics, Inc. and Polycom, Inc., and Skullcandy, Inc., alleging infringement of the Company’s patents relating to its wireless headphone technology and seeking monetary relief and attorneys’ fees. The lawsuits are pending in U.S. District Courts in the Western District of Texas (Apple, Inc.), District of Massachusetts (Bose Corporation), Southern District of California (PEAG, LLC), Northern District of California (Plantronics, Inc. and Polycome, Inc.), and District of Utah (Skullcandy, Inc.).
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
MARKET INFORMATION ON COMMON STOCK
The Company’s common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol KOSS. There were 330 record holders of the Company’s common stock as of August 16, 2021. This number does not include individual participants in security position listings. There were no dividends declared during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
COMPANY REPURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Approximate Dollar Value of
Part of Publicly
Shares Available under
Announced Plan (1)
April 1-April 30
May 1-May 31
June 1-June 30
(1) In April 1995, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the Company to purchase from time to time up to $2,000,000 of its common stock for its own account. Subsequently, the Board of Directors periodically has approved increases in the amount authorized for repurchase under the program. As of June 30, 2021, the Board had authorized the repurchase of an aggregate of $45,500,000 of common stock under the stock repurchase program, of which $43,360,247 had been expended. No purchases were made during the years ended June 30, 2021 or 2020.
We have not paid dividends on our capital stock since March 2014 and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Common Stock in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain future earnings to fund ongoing operations and future capital requirements. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and such other factors as the Board of Directors deems relevant.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
The purpose of this discussion and analysis is to enhance the understanding and evaluation of the financial position, results of operations, cash flows, indebtedness and other key financial information of the Company for fiscal years 2021 and 2020. Our MD&A should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Company developed stereo headphones in 1958 and has been a leader in the industry ever since. We market a complete line of high-fidelity headphones, wireless Bluetooth® headphones, wireless Bluetooth® speakers, computer headsets, telecommunications headsets, and active noise canceling headphones. Koss operates as one business segment, as its only business line is the design, manufacture and sale of stereo headphones and related accessories.
The Company’s products are sold domestically and internationally through a variety of retailers and distributors, as well as directly to other manufacturers for including with their own products. Changes in sales volume are driven primarily by the addition or loss of customers, a customer adding or removing a product from its inventory, or changes in economic conditions. They are relatively less impacted by seasonality or the traditional holiday shopping season.
Although certain of the Company's products could be viewed as essential by consumers for use with mobile phones and other portable electronic devices, other products are more of a discretionary spend. The results of the Company's operations are therefore susceptible to consumer confidence and macroeconomic factors.
Fiscal Year 2021 Summary
Net sales increased 6.7% to $19,546,008 on increases in U.S. distributor, export market and direct-to-consumer (“DTC”) sales. Export sales increased 67% while domestic sales fell 6%.
Gross profit as a percent of sales increased 3.5% to 34.4%. The increase was primarily due to a US mass retailer dropping a lower margin product as well as a change in the mix of sales by product and by channel.
Selling, general and administrative expense was higher as a result of employer taxes on stock option exercises and deferred compensation expense.
Tax expense for the year ended June 30, 2021 was minimal due to an offsetting change in the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets.
The following table presents selected consolidated financial data for each of the past two fiscal years:
Consolidated Performance Summary
Net sales increase (decrease) %
Gross profit as % of net sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses as % of net sales
Income (loss) before income tax provision (benefit)
Income (loss) before income tax provision as % of net sales
Income tax provision
Income tax provision as % of income (loss) before taxes
2021 Results of Operations Compared with 2020
Net sales for 2021 increased primarily due to increased sales in the Company's export markets. Domestic sales reflected mixed results among markets but, overall, declined 5.7% compared to 2020.
Export net sales increased by $2,097,131 or 66.6% to $5,247,650. Export distributors had strong volumes especially in the Czech Republic, Scandinavia and Russia. These have historically been key markets and led the resurgence in sales volumes. These markets were strong despite the restrictions through the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company expects to see continued growth as restrictions are eased.
For the year ended June 30, 2021, domestic net sales decreased 5.7% from $15,161,311 to $14,298,358. There was a significant shift in sales to distributors and DTC from mass retail with a US mass retailer dropping their branded products from their planogram. The business has become much more oriented to distributors and DTC along with certain OEM products. Sales into the education marketplace decreased due to large shipments late in the year ended June 30, 2020 that were not repeated this year as those customers re-establish their testing services.
Gross profit increased to 34.4% for the year ended June 30, 2021, compared to 30.9% for the prior fiscal year. The margin rates are very dependent on mix of sales by customer, product and sales channel. The lower sales to a US-based mass retailer, which has discontinued the product supplied by the Company, improved margin rates. Improved sales in the U.S. through distributors, DTC market and the export markets improved the margin rates. Early in the year ended June 30, 2021, freight costs were higher than normal as product was shipped by air to meet customer delivery schedules. Late in the fiscal year, cargo-freight costs began to rise as cargo carriers significantly increased pricing. The Company expects high freight costs to continue into the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022 and negatively impact margins.
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended June 30, 2021, increased 15.9% or approximately $976,000 to approximately $7,123,000. The primary factor was employer taxes on stock option exercises of approximately $571,000 in the current year. There was also increased deferred compensation expenses. These costs were partially offset by a reduction in the 401k company match. Deferred compensation expense increased by approximately $244,000 due to changes in the assumptions on life expectancy, discount rates, and a higher payout based on years of service and earnings. The 401k company match decreased approximately $172,000 as the percentage match was decreased.
As previously reported, the Company has launched a program focused on enforcing its intellectual property and, in particular, certain of its patent portfolio. The Company has enforced its intellectual property by filing complaints against certain parties alleging infringement on the Company’s patents relating to its wireless headphone technology. The Company has recovered certain of the fees and costs that were involved with the underlying efforts to enforce this portfolio, as further described in the notes to the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If the program is successful, the Company may receive royalties, offers to purchase its intellectual property, or other remedies advantageous to its competitive position; however, there is no guarantee of a positive outcome from these efforts, which could ultimately be time consuming and unsuccessful.
Income tax expense for the year ended June 30, 2021, was comprised of the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21%, and the effect of state income taxes, offset by an adjustment to the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets until it is more likely than not that the Company will be able to use the net operating loss carryforwards at which time the valuation allowance will be removed. The effective tax rate was approximately 0% in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021. It is anticipated that the effective rate in future years will be reduced by utilization of a portion or all of the approximately $31,310,000 of federal net operating loss carryforwards.
The Company has been closely monitoring the COVID-19 situation to protect the health and safety of its employees and customers. Business plans are being continuously updated and executed to maintain supply of the Company’s products to our customers throughout the world.
The Company continued to see strong demand in the year ended June 30, 2021 for specific communication headphones as people continued to work from home and studied online due to COVID-19 related directives. However, certain retail businesses throughout the Company’s markets, particularly in certain European markets, have seen continued disruption. The Company expects sporadic negative sales impacts to continue until markets reopen fully and consumer spending returns to normal.
The ultimate magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the extent of its impact on the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations and liquidity, cannot be reasonably estimated at this time due to the rapid development and fluidity of the situation. The Company's future results will be heavily determined by timely rollout of the vaccines, effectiveness of the vaccines, the duration of the pandemic, impact of the variants, its geographic spread, further business disruptions and the overall impact on the global economy. Many European countries continued to have lockdowns in the year ended June 30, 2021, which negatively impacted sales into those countries.
The Company’s supply chain is primarily in southern China. This portion of the Company's supply chain was disrupted early in the quarter ended March 31, 2020. Until recently, these disruptions had little on-going impact. In the past six to nine months, the Company began experiencing issues related to the availability of containers and routing to move products in a time efficient manner. There have also been impacts to the movement of new product introductions and costs. The Company is monitoring the situation closely and the supply chain team has modified business plans, which include, but are not limited to: (1) increasing the investment in inventory; (2) being alert to potential short supply situations; (3) assisting suppliers with acquisition of critical components; and (4) utilizing alternative sources and/or air freight.
To protect the safety, health and well-being of employees, customers, and suppliers, the Company continues to implement several preventive measures while also meeting the needs of global customers. They include increased frequency of cleaning and disinfecting of facilities, social distancing practices, remote working when possible, restrictions on business travel, holding certain events virtually and limitations on visitor access to facilities. The Company is committed to continuing to execute these plans.
The Company had $6,950,215 of cash and available credit facilities of $5,000,000 on June 30, 2021, which the Company expects to be sufficient to fund its operations beyond the next twelve months from the date of filing this Form 10-K.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table summarizes our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for each of the past two fiscal years:
Total cash provided by (used in):
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
The Company generated less cash from operations despite having an improvement in net income of $959,101. Changes in operating assets and liabilities used $500,565 of cash in the year ended June 30, 2021 compared to generating $1,597,977 in cash during the year ended June 30, 2020. The movement of working capital in the year ended June 30, 2021 is more representative of the business in a year of growth and with sales shifting to export distributors. The Company is very focused on working capital, especially inventory levels, to adjust to changes in the business and the impacts of shipping delays on lead times from China.
Cash used in investing activities was higher for 2021 as the Company increased spending on leasehold improvements and the implementation of a new ERP system. The Company is planning approximately $600,000 for tooling and leasehold improvements in the year ending June 30, 2022. The tooling expenditures are to support new product introductions. The Company expects to generate sufficient funds through operations to fund these expenditures.
The cash generated from financing activities in the year ended June 30, 2021 was driven by stock option exercises. In the year ended June 30, 2020, the $506,700 cash generated from financing activities was the unsecured loan the Company entered into under the Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act") through Town Bank. As of June 30, 2021, the Company had no outstanding borrowings on its bank line of credit facility under the Credit Agreement (described below under "Credit Facility").
There were no purchases of common stock in 2021 or 2020 under the stock repurchase program. In the year ended June 30, 2021, there were stock option exercises of 1,203,875 shares generating $3,306,272 of cash.
In addition to capital expenditures, the Company has interest payments when it uses its line of credit facility. The Company believes that cash generated from operations, together with borrowings available under its credit facility, should provide it with adequate liquidity to meet operating requirements, debt service requirements, and capital expenditures. Management is focusing on increasing sales, especially in the export markets, increasing new product introductions, increasing the generation of cash from operations, and improving the Company’s overall earnings to help improve the Company’s liquidity. The Company regularly evaluates new product offerings, inventory levels, and capital expenditures to ensure that it is effectively allocating resources in line with current market conditions.
On May 14, 2019, the Company entered into a secured credit facility ("Credit Agreement") with Town Bank (“Lender”) for a two-year term expiring on May 14, 2021. The Credit Agreement provides for a $5,000,000 revolving secured credit facility with an interest rate of 1.50% over LIBOR. The Credit Agreement also provides for letters of credit for the benefit of the Company of up to a sublimit of $1,000,000. There are no unused line fees in the credit facility. On January 28, 2021, the Credit Agreement was amended to extend the expiration to October 31, 2022, and to change the interest rate to Wall Street Journal Prime less 1.50%. The Company and the Lender also entered into a General Business Security Agreement dated May 14, 2019 under which the Company granted the Lender a security interest in substantially all of the Company’s assets in connection with the Company’s obligations under the Credit Agreement. The Credit Agreement contains certain affirmative and negative covenants customary for financings of this type. The negative covenants include restrictions on other indebtedness, liens, fundamental changes, certain investments, disposition of assets, mergers and liquidations, among other restrictions. The Company is currently in compliance with all covenants related to the Credit Agreement. As of June 30, 2021, and June 30, 2020, there were no outstanding borrowings on the facility.
Stock Repurchase Program
In April 1995, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the Company to purchase, from time to time, up to $2,000,000 of its common stock for its own account. Subsequently, the Board of Directors periodically has approved increases of between $1,000,000 to $5,000,000 in the stock repurchase program. As of June 30, 2021, the most recently approved increase was for additional purchases of $2,000,000, which occurred in October 2006, for an aggregate maximum of $45,500,000, of which $43,360,247 had been expended through June 30, 2021.
There were no stock repurchases under the program in fiscal year 2021 or 2020. As of June 30, 2021, the Board of Directors has authorized the repurchase by the Company of up to $2,139,753 in Company common stock at the discretion of the Chief Executive Officer of the Company. Future stock purchases under this program are dependent on management’s assessment of value versus market price, may occur either on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions and may be financed through the Company’s cash flow or by borrowing.
The Company leases the 126,000 square foot facility from Koss Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by the Company’s former chairman. On January 5, 2017, the lease was renewed for a period of five years, ending June 30, 2023, and is being accounted for as an operating lease. The lease extension maintained the rent at a fixed rate of $380,000 per year. The Company is responsible for all property maintenance, insurance, taxes and other normal expenses related to ownership. The facility is in good repair and, in the opinion of management, is suitable and adequate for the Company’s business purposes.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these Consolidated Financial Statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We continually evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to doubtful accounts, product returns, excess inventories, warranties, impairment of long-lived assets, deferred compensation, income taxes and other contingencies. We base our estimates on historical experience and assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The extent to which COVID-19 impacts the Company’s business and financial results will depend on numerous evolving factors including, but not limited to: the magnitude and duration of COVID-19, the impact of COVID variants, the extent to which it will impact worldwide macroeconomic conditions, the speed of the anticipated recovery, access to capital markets, and governmental and business reactions to the pandemic. The Company assessed certain accounting matters that generally require consideration of forecasted financial information in context with the information reasonably available to the Company and the unknown future impacts of COVID-19 as of June 30, 2021 and through the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The accounting matters assessed included, but were not limited to estimates related to revenue, the accounting for potential liabilities and accrued expenses, the assumptions utilized in valuing stock-based compensation issued for services, the realization of deferred tax assets, the inventory valuation reserve, and assessments of impairment related to long-lived assets. The Company’s future assessment of the magnitude and duration of COVID-19, as well as other factors, could result in additional material impacts to the Company’s consolidated financial statements in future reporting periods.
Despite the Company’s efforts to evaluate the extent to which COVID-19 will impact the Company’s business and financial results, the ultimate impact of COVID-19 depends on factors beyond the Company’s knowledge or control, including the duration and severity of the outbreak, as well as third-party actions taken to contain its spread and mitigate its public health effects. As a result, the Company is unable to estimate the full extent to which COVID-19 will negatively impact its financial results or liquidity.
Revenues from product sales are recognized when the customer obtains control of the product, which typically occurs upon shipment from the Company's facility. There are a very limited number of customers for which control does not pass until they have received the products at their facility. Revenue from product sales is adjusted for estimated warranty obligations and variable consideration, which are detailed below. The Company adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 (Topic 606), Revenue from Contracts with Customers. This standard superseded nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance and provides a five-step analysis to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The underlying principle is to recognize revenue when promised goods or services transfer to the customer. The amount of revenue recognized is to reflect the consideration expected to be received for those goods or services. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on revenue recognition.
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and adjusts credit limits based upon payment history and the customer’s current credit worthiness, as determined by the review of the customer’s current credit information. The Company continuously monitors collections and payments from customers and maintains an allowance for estimated credit losses. Accounts receivable are stated net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance is calculated based upon the Company’s evaluation of specific customer accounts where the Company has information that the customer may have an inability to meet its financial obligations. In these cases, management uses its judgment, based on the best available facts and circumstances, and records a specific reserve for that customer against amounts due to reduce the receivable to the amount that is expected to be collected. These specific reserves are re-evaluated and adjusted as additional information is received that impacts the amount reserved. However, the ultimate collectibility of the unsecured receivable is dependent upon the financial condition of an individual customer, which could change rapidly and without warning.
The Company values its inventories using standard cost which approximates the lower of first in first out (“FIFO”) cost or net realizable value. Valuing inventories at the lower of cost or market requires the use of estimates and judgment. The Company continues to use the same techniques to value inventories that it has in the past. Our customers may cancel their orders or change purchase volumes. This, or certain additional actions or market developments, could create excess inventory levels, which would impact the valuation of our inventories. Any actions taken by our customers or market developments that could impact the value of our inventory are considered when determining the lower of cost or market valuations. The Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and records a provision for excess and obsolete inventory based primarily on historical and projected usage and production requirements. If the Company is not able to achieve its expectations of the net realizable value of the inventory at its current value, the Company would have to adjust its reserves accordingly. When a reserve is established, it creates a new cost basis, which is not increased in the future.
Product Warranty Obligations
The Company offers a lifetime warranty to consumers in the United States and certain other countries. This lifetime warranty creates a future performance obligation. There are also certain foreign distributors that receive warranty repair parts and replacement headphones to satisfy warranty obligations in those countries. The Company defers revenue to recognize the future obligations related to these warranties. The deferred revenue is based on historical analysis of warranty claims relative to sales. This deferred revenue reflects the Company's best estimates of the amount of warranty returns and repairs it will experience during those future periods. If future warranty activity varies from the estimates, the Company will adjust the estimated deferred revenue, which would affect net sales and operating results in the period that such adjustment becomes known.
The Company’s deferred compensation liabilities are for a current and former officer and are calculated based on compensation, years of service, discount rates and mortality tables. The related expense is calculated using the net present value of the expected payments and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Management makes estimates of life expectancy and discount rates using information available from several sources. In addition, management estimates the expected retirement date for the current officer as that impacts the timing for expected future payments. See Note 9 for additional information on deferred compensation.
The Company has a stock-based employee compensation plan, which is described more fully in Note 11. The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718 "Compensation - Stock Compensation". Under the fair value recognition provisions of this statement, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the vesting period. The expected term of the options and volatility are estimated using historical experience for the options by vesting period. The risk-free interest rate is calculated based on the expected life of the options. The Company does not estimate forfeitures as they are recognized when they occur.
We estimate a provision for income taxes based on the effective tax rate expected to be applicable for the fiscal year. If the actual results are different from these estimates, adjustments to the effective tax rate may be required in the period such determination is made. Additionally, discrete items are treated separately from the effective rate analysis and are recorded separately as an income tax provision or benefit at the time they are recognized.
Deferred income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method whereby deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using statutory tax rates. Deferred income tax provisions are based on changes in the deferred tax assets and liabilities from period to period. Additionally, we analyze our ability to recognize the net deferred income tax assets created in each jurisdiction in which we operate to determine if valuation allowances are necessary based on the “more likely than not” criteria.
New Accounting Pronouncements
Applicable new accounting pronouncements are set forth under Item 15 of this annual report and are incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
See the Consolidated Financial Statements included herewith.
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Disclosure Controls and Procedures.
Disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) are designed to ensure that (1) information required to be disclosed in reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms; and (2) that such information is accumulated and communicated to management, including the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. There are inherent limitations to the effectiveness of any system of disclosure controls and procedures, including the possibility of human error and the circumvention or overriding of controls and procedures. Accordingly, even effective disclosure controls and procedures can only provide reasonable assurance of achieving their control objectives.
The Company’s management, including the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of June 30, 2021. The Company’s management has concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of June 30, 2021 were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Controls over Financial Reporting.
The Company’s management, including its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) and designing such internal controls to provide reasonable assurances regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. There are inherent limitations to the effectiveness of any system of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of human error or the circumvention or overriding of controls and procedures. Accordingly, even effective internal control over financial reporting can only provide reasonable assurance of achieving its control objectives.
Management conducted its evaluation of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in the Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on this evaluation, management has concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2021 was effective.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in the Company's internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) during the three months ended June 30, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.
This information is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled "Information as to the Nominees," "Board Committees - Audit Committee," "Code of Ethics," "Executive Officers," and "Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance" from Koss Corporation’s Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission under Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K. The Company adopted a code of ethics, which is a "code of ethics" as defined by applicable rules of the SEC, which is applicable to its directors, officers and employees. The code of ethics is publicly available on the Company's website at investors.koss.com. If the Company makes any substantive amendments to the code of ethics or grants any waiver, including any implicit waiver, from a provision of the code to its principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller or persons performing similar functions, the Company will disclose the nature of the amendment or waiver on that website or in a report on Form 8-K.
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.
This information is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled "Board Committees - Compensation Committee," "Summary Compensation Table," "Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year End," and "Director Compensation Table" from Koss Corporation’s Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission under Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS.
This information is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled "Beneficial Ownership of Company Securities" and "Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year End" from Koss Corporation’s Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission under Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE.
This information is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled "Board Committees," "Independence of the Board" and "Related Party Transactions" from Koss Corporation’s Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission under Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES.
This information is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled "Fees and Services" and "Audit Committee Pre-Approval Policies and Procedures" from Koss Corporation’s Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission under Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
The following documents are filed as part of this report:
1. Consolidated Financial Statements
2. Financial Statement Schedules
All schedules have been omitted because the information is not applicable, is not material or because the information required is included in the Consolidated Financial Statements or the notes thereto.
3. Exhibits Filed
See Exhibit Index attached hereto.
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors
Koss Corporation and Subsidiaries
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Koss Corporation and Subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of June 30, 2021 and 2020, and the related statements of operations, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material aspects, the financial position of the Company as of June 30, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and the significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgements. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosure to which it relates.
As described in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has deferred compensation agreements with a former and current officer, which are measured at their estimated net present value. The principal considerations for our determination that deferred compensation should be a critical audit matter was based on the subjective nature of the assumptions estimated and used by management to calculate the deferred compensation liability. Assumptions subject to estimate included discount rates, mortality rates, and a future retirement date. Changes to these assumptions may have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
The primary audit procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
We evaluated the design effectiveness of controls over the Company’s process for accounting and recording the deferred compensation liability.
We evaluated management’s calculation methodology and its compliance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America regarding deferred compensation liabilities.
We tested the discount and mortality rate assumptions used by management to calculate the deferred compensation liability by independently determining our own assumptions based on the relevant facts and circumstances and recalculating the deferred compensation liability utilizing those assumptions.
We confirmed with the current officer his expected retirement date.
/s/ WIPFLI LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2019
August 20, 2021
KOSS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
As of June 30,
Cash and cash equivalents
Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
Income taxes receivable
Total current assets
Equipment and leasehold improvements, net
Operating lease right-of-use asset
Cash surrender value of life insurance
Total other assets
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Operating lease liability
Income taxes payable
Total current liabilities
Operating lease liability
Total long-term liabilities
Common stock, $
Paid in capital
Total stockholder' equity
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
KOSS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
Years Ended June 30,
Cost of goods sold
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(Loss) from operations
Income (loss) before income tax provision
Income tax provision
Net income (loss)
Income (loss) per common share:
Weighted-average number of shares:
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
KOSS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Years Ended June 30,
Net income (loss)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
(Recovery of) provision for doubtful accounts of accounts receivable
Depreciation of equipment and leasehold improvements
Stock-based compensation expense
Deferred income taxes
Change in cash surrender value of life insurance
Provision for deferred compensation
Deferred compensation paid
Other income - SBA loan forgiveness
Net changes in operating assets and liabilities: